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Citation Help

APA Style

What is APA (American Psychological Association) Style?

APA style was "designed to advance scholarship by setting sound and rigorous standards for scientific communication" (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. xiii). 

APA is utilized most by those in the social sciences, psychology, education, nursing, and business to cite sources, however, always confirm with your professor which style is required even if the course is in one of these disciplines.

General Guidelines

Papers in APA style should follow these guidelines:
  • typed
  • double-spaced
  • 1" margins on all sides
  • 12 pt. Times New Roman font
  • page header  (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page
    • For instructions on inserting the running head please visit the Purdue OWL
APA Major Paper Sections:
  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Main Body
  • References

For further instructions please visit the Purdue OWL

APA Manual

Quick Links to APA Citation Rules

APA Style Examples

APA In-Text Examples

 

Quotations:

    Rule:

At the end of a direct quotation, you will need to include the last name of the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference, preceded by "p.", in parenthesis with commas in between each piece of information.

    Example:

"Quotation" (Bailey, 2015, p. 25).

 

Paraphrases/Summaries:

    Rule:

At the end of a section you have paraphrased or summarized include the last name of the author and year of publication in your in-text reference in parenthesis with commas in between each piece of information. (APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number, although it is not required.)

    Example:

Paraphrase (Bailey, 2015).


APA References Examples

 
Book:

    Formula:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

    Example:

Bailey, R. (2015). The end of doom: Environmental renewal in the twenty-first century. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press.

 

ebook:

    Formula for Downloaded ebook:   

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. [Reader version]. doi or Retrieved from URL

    Formula for Online ebook:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. doi or Retrieved from URL

    Example for for Downloaded ebook:

Gombatz, E. (2008). Global warming series: Global warming big book. [Kindle DX version] Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

    Example for Online ebook:

Gombatz, E. (2008). Global warming series: Global warming big book. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/charlesouth/detail.action?docID=10561793

 

Print Journal:

    Formula:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

    Example:

Sejrup, H. P., Clark, C. D., & Hjelstuen, B. O. (2016). Rapid ice sheet retreat triggered by ice stream debuttressing: Evidence from the North Sea. Geology, 44(5), 355-358.

 

Online Journal:

    Formula:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000

    Example:

Qu, X., & Huang, G. (2016). The global warming-induced south asian high change and Its uncertainty. Journal Of Climate, 29(6), 2259-2273. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0638.1

    Note: If no doi # is available then replace with "Retrieved from URL"

References

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). APA style. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/


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