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Citation Help

Chicago Style

What is Chicago Style?

"Chicago style provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources" (Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition, 2017). 

Chicago Style is utilized most by those in the humanities and most often in history to cite sources, however, always confirm with your professor which style is required even if the course is in one of these disciplines.

Turabian Style

What is Turabian?

Turabian is actually not a separate citation style, but a manual that is considered the authoritative student resource on Chicago style.  The Turabian manual reflects the guidelines found in The Chicago Manual of Style, however, "the recommendations in this manual in some instances diverge from The Chicago Manual of Style in small ways, to better suit the requirements of academic papers as opposed to published works" (Turabian, Booth, Colomb, & Williams, 2013, p. xiv).

Remember: always confirm your citations with your professor before turning in a paper!

General Guidelines

Papers in Chicago style should follow these guidelines:
  • typed
  • no less than 1" and no greater than 1.5" margins
  • 12 pt. Times New Roman font
  • double-spaced with the exception of block quotations, table titles, and figure captions which should be single-spaced
Chicago Major Paper Sections:
  • Title Page
  • Main Body
  • Bibliography
  • Notes (Endnotes/Footnotes)

For further instructions please visit the Purdue Owl

Chicago Manual

Quick Links to Chicago Citation Rules

Chicago Notes & Bibliography:

Notes and bibliography in Chicago style

Links go to the Purdue Owl

Chicago Style Examples

Chicago Style Footnotes & Endnotes Examples

 

Quotations/Paraphrases/Summaries:

    In-Text Rules:

Footnotes or endnotes should be included each time you use a source. Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes are compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

A superscript number should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

    Example:

"Our results demonstrate a rapid retreat of a marine ice sheet sector driven by grounding line retreat of the major ice stream,"1

 

    Footnote/Endnote Rule 1:

The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s).

    Example Note:

1. Hans Petter Sejrup, Chris D. Clark, and Berit O. Hjelstuen, "Rapid Ice Sheet Retreat Triggered By Ice Stream Debuttressing: Evidence From The North Sea," Geology 44, no. 5 (May 2016): 358.

    Example Note (later in paper):

6. Sejrup, Clark, and Hjelstuen,"Rapid Ice Sheet Retreat Triggered," 356.

 

    Footnote/Endnote Rule 2:

If you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, the corresponding note should use the word “Ibid.,”  an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem,  which means “in the same place.” If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).

    Example Note:

1. Hans Petter Sejrup, Chris D. Clark, and Berit O. Hjelstuen, "Rapid Ice Sheet Retreat Triggered By Ice Stream Debuttressing: Evidence From The North Sea," Geology 44, no. 5 (May 2016): 358.

    Example Consecutive Note:

2. Ibid, 356.

(Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition, 2010).


Chicago Bibliography Examples

 
Book:

    Formula:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

    Example:

Bailey, Ronald. The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2015.

 

ebook:

    Formula for Downloaded ebook:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Reader version.

    Formula for Online ebook:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. doi or URL

    Example for Downloaded ebook:

Gombatz, Erika. Global Warming Series: Global Warming Big Book. San Diego, CA: Classroom Complete Press, 2008. Kindle edition.

    Example for Online ebook:

Gombatz, Erika. Global Warming Series: Global Warming Big Book. San Diego, CA: Classroom Complete Press, 2008. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/charlesouth/detail.action?docID=10561793

 

Print Journal:

    Formula:

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume, Issue no. (date): page numbers. doi.

    Example:

Sejrup, Hans Petter, Chris D. Clark, and Berit O. Hjelstuen. "Rapid Ice Sheet Retreat Triggered By Ice Stream Debuttressing: Evidence From The North Sea." Geology 44, no. 5 (May 2016): 355-358.

doi: 10.1130/G37652.1.

 

Online Journal:

    Formula:

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. "Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume, Issue no. (date): page numbers. Accessed Date. doi or URL.

    Example:

Qu, Xia, and Gang Huang. "The Global Warming-Induced South Asian High Change and Its Uncertainty." Journal Of Climate 29, no. 6 (March 15, 2016): 2259-2273. Accessed May 27, 2016.

doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0638.1.

References

Clements, J., Angeli, E., Schiller, K., Gooch, S.C., Pinkert, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). Chicago manual of style. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/12/

Clements, J., Angeli, E., Schiller, K., Gooch, S.C., Pinkert, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). Chicago manual of style 16th edition. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/

Clements, J., Angeli, E., Schiller, K., Gooch, S.C., Pinkert, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/

The Chicago manual of style. (2010). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Turabian, K. L., Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (2013). A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations: Chicago Style for students and researchers. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press.


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