All Information on this page and more can be found in "Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians".
The Fair Use Doctrine allows exemption to copyright protections for purposes such as criticism, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research.
Fair use is a concept embedded in U.S. law that recognizes that certain uses of copyright-protected works do not require permission from the copyright holder. (See Title 17, section 107)
What Determines Fair Use?
The following four factors are used to determine if a use is fair:
*Not all uses in an academic context are automatically considered fair use!
Can I Use It? Map: guides users through the process of determining if a use is fair. Developed by The University of Minnesota Libraries. https://www.lib.umn.edu/pdf/DecisionMap.pdf
Fair Use Evaluator: helps users collect, organize, and document the information they may need to support a fair use claim, and provides a time-stamped PDF document for the users’ records. Developed by the American Library Association, Office for Information Technology Policy, Copyright Advisory Network. http://librarycopyright.net/resources/fairuse/
U.S. Copyright Office. (n.d.). Circular 21: Reproduction of copyrighted works by educators and librarians. Retrieved from
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