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Citation Help

The 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was published in October 2019. Some departments and instructors may still be using the 6th edition. Please consult your instructor if you are unsure which edition to use.

(*** Please view this What's Changed? summary for differences from 6th to 7th edition)

The APA citation style is primarily used by disciplines in the business, social sciences, health, and education fields. The official guide is published by the American Psychological Association:

There are several resources online to help you with APA 7th Edition:

The main navigation links will show you how to set up your paper in APA format, and how to properly cite a variety of resources, both in your references list and within your paper using in-text citations.

The information below references APA 6th Edition:

 

Papers in APA style 6th Edition should follow these guidelines:
  • typed
  • double-spaced
  • 1" margins on all sides
  • 12 pt. Times New Roman font
  • page header  (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page
    • For instructions on inserting the running head please visit the Purdue OWL
APA Major Paper Sections:
  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Main Body
  • References

For further instructions please visit the Purdue OWL

APA 6th Edition In-Text Examples

 

Quotations:

    Rule:

At the end of a direct quotation, you will need to include the last name of the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference, preceded by "p.", in parenthesis with commas in between each piece of information.

    Example:

"Quotation" (Bailey, 2015, p. 25).

 

Paraphrases/Summaries:

    Rule:

At the end of a section you have paraphrased or summarized include the last name of the author and year of publication in your in-text reference in parenthesis with commas in between each piece of information. (APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number, although it is not required.)

    Example:

Paraphrase (Bailey, 2015).


APA 6th Edition References Examples

 
Book:

    Formula:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

    Example:

Bailey, R. (2015). The end of doom: Environmental renewal in the twenty-first century. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press.

 

ebook:

    Formula for Downloaded ebook:   

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. [Reader version]. doi or Retrieved from URL

    Formula for Online ebook:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. doi or Retrieved from URL

    Example for for Downloaded ebook:

Gombatz, E. (2008). Global warming series: Global warming big book. [Kindle DX version] Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

    Example for Online ebook:

Gombatz, E. (2008). Global warming series: Global warming big book. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/charlesouth/detail.action?docID=10561793

 

Print Journal:

    Formula:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

    Example:

Sejrup, H. P., Clark, C. D., & Hjelstuen, B. O. (2016). Rapid ice sheet retreat triggered by ice stream debuttressing: Evidence from the North Sea. Geology, 44(5), 355-358.

 

Online Journal:

    Formula:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000

    Example:

Qu, X., & Huang, G. (2016). The global warming-induced south asian high change and Its uncertainty. Journal Of Climate, 29(6), 2259-2273. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0638.1

    Note: If no doi # is available then replace with "Retrieved from URL"

References

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). APA style. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/


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