The 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was published in October 2019. Some departments and instructors may still be using the 6th edition. Please consult your instructor if you are unsure which edition to use.
(*** Please view this What's Changed? summary for differences from 6th to 7th edition)
The APA citation style is primarily used by disciplines in the business, social sciences, health, and education fields. The official guide is published by the American Psychological Association:
There are several resources online to help you with APA 7th Edition:
The main navigation links will show you how to set up your paper in APA format, and how to properly cite a variety of resources, both in your references list and within your paper using in-text citations.
For further instructions please visit the Purdue OWL
At the end of a direct quotation, you will need to include the last name of the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference, preceded by "p.", in parenthesis with commas in between each piece of information.
"Quotation" (Bailey, 2015, p. 25).
At the end of a section you have paraphrased or summarized include the last name of the author and year of publication in your in-text reference in parenthesis with commas in between each piece of information. (APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number, although it is not required.)
Paraphrase (Bailey, 2015).
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Bailey, R. (2015). The end of doom: Environmental renewal in the twenty-first century. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press.
Formula for Downloaded ebook:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. [Reader version]. doi or Retrieved from URL
Formula for Online ebook:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. doi or Retrieved from URL
Example for for Downloaded ebook:
Gombatz, E. (2008). Global warming series: Global warming big book. [Kindle DX version] Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
Example for Online ebook:
Gombatz, E. (2008). Global warming series: Global warming big book. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/charlesouth/detail.action?docID=10561793
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.
Sejrup, H. P., Clark, C. D., & Hjelstuen, B. O. (2016). Rapid ice sheet retreat triggered by ice stream debuttressing: Evidence from the North Sea. Geology, 44(5), 355-358.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000
Qu, X., & Huang, G. (2016). The global warming-induced south asian high change and Its uncertainty. Journal Of Climate, 29(6), 2259-2273. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0638.1
Note: If no doi # is available then replace with "Retrieved from URL"
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/