"Building confidence in the information and ideas we share with one another is perhaps more important today than ever before, and for nearly a century it has been the driving principle behind MLA style, a set of standards for writing and documentation used by writers to find and evaluate information, alert their audience to the trustworthiness of their findings through citation, and shape the expression of their ideas in conversation with others." (The Modern Language Association of America, 2021, p. xxi).
MLA is utilized most by those in the fields of English language and literature, Foreign languages and literature, and cultural studies to cite sources, however, always confirm with your professor which style is required even if the course is in one of these disciplines.
The information on this page refers to MLA 9th edition. Please see our MLA 8th Edition Style Guide if you are required to use that edition.
For more guidelines and examples, check out the MLA Style Center In-Text Citations Overview.
(Last Name Page #)
Or, introduce direct quotes with the author and title within the sentence or paragraph, then include the page number(s) at the end of the quote in parentheses.
You only need the author's last name and the page number.
If there is no author...
Use a shortened title of the work
("Impact of Global Warming")
Connect both authors' last names with and, and include the page number.
(Best and Marcus 9)
Use the first author's last name and et al., and include the page number.
(Franck et al. 327)
Author Last Name, First Name Middle Name or Initial. Title of Longer Work or "Title of Shorter Work." Publisher, Year. URL or DOI.
I'm citing a...
Gosine, Kevin, and Emmanuel Tabi. "Disrupting Neoliberalism and Bridging the Multiple Worlds of Marginalized Youth via Hip-Hop Pedagogy: Contemplating Possibilities." Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, vol. 38, no. 5, 2016, pp. 445-467. Research Gate, doi: 10.1080/10714413.2016.1221712.
Cochrane, Emily, and Noah Weiland. "Hillary Clinton, the N.F.L., Roy Moore and Other Asides from the President." The New York Times, 16 Nov. 2018, https://nyti.ms/2zf1TPB.
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. 1st ed., J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1960.eBook
Hughes, Langston. Letters from Langston: From the Harlem Renaissance to the Red Scare and Beyond, edited by Evelyn Louise Crawford and Mary Louise Patterson. University of California Press, 2016. EBSCOhost Academic eBook Collection, http://libproxy.csudh.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=1105577&site=ehost-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&.
Green, David. "Supporting the Academic Success of Hispanic Students." College Libraries and Student Culture: What We Now Know, edited by Andrew D. Asher and Lynda M. Duke, ALA Editions, 2011. EBSCOhost Academic eBook Collection, http://libproxy.csudh.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=390319.
"Citation Guide." CSUDH University Library, https://www.libguides.csudh.edu/citation.
Check out more examples of citing online sources from the MLA Style Cetner.
1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor.
2. Right click.
3. Select Paragraph.
4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.
Microsoft Word and Google Docs have a Format Painter tool that will copy and apply basic formatting to any text!
1. Highlight the formatting you want to apply.
2. Select Format Painter.
3. Highlight the text you want to change.
Note: If using the Format Painter on the Reference List, you'll need to go back and add italics.
This guide was created by Tessa Withorn at CSUDH Library and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.
Modern Language Association of America. (2021). MLA handbook (9th ed.). New York: Modern Language Association of America.